Wild And Wonderful Things To Do in Uzbekistan, Heart Of The Silk Road

There are plenty of things to do in Uzbekistan, and one of the more challenging – until recently – was simply getting into the country.

In fact, I almost didn’t make it into Uzbekistan.

As I was preparing to cross the overland border from Kyrgyzstan, the long-time Uzbek strongman, Islam Karimov, died. In the state of uncertainty that usually follows the death of a dictator, chaos ruled.

What would happen next? A revolution? A power struggle? A clampdown? Nothing?

News was hard to come by but eventually, I crossed the border on foot, the only person to do so that day.

I was IN – and I couldn’t wait! But let me backtrack for a moment.

One of the great things to do in Uzbekistan: explore the architecture
This is the kind of stunning architecture you can expect to see throughout Uzbekistan ©WOTR

No time to read and just want the highlights?

Where is Uzbekistan, anyway?

Knowing which “Stan” is which can be confusing at first, especially if you’ve never visited Central Asia.

Uzbekistan occupies space somewhere between China and Russia and has five immediate neighbors: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan. 

A brief history of Uzbekistan people and things

People have populated this part of the world for millennia and by the time Alexander the Great swept through and conquered Samarkand in 329 BC, the Silk Road was a well-entrenched trade route.

Islam eventually took hold, Genghis Khan invaded and destroyed, and Tamerlane finally established an empire with Samarkand as its capital. Centuries later, the Russians turned the country, then known as Turkestan, into a cotton-producing colony.

Any timid anti-Russian sentiment was quickly crushed by the Bolshevik Revolution and for nearly a century, Uzbekistan would be ruled as part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or USSR.

When the Soviet structure crumbled, Uzbekistan declared independence. It would henceforth be ruled with increasing authoritarianism by the first president of Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov, a rule that ended only with his death in 2016.

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, travelers have been rediscovering the ancient Silk Road, crisscrossing Central Asia to marvel at mosaics and fortresses, and mud walls dating back 1000 years.

Today’s Uzbekistan is transitioning, as a post-Karimov modern state pushes for development while doing everything it can to preserve its heritage.

Today’s Uzbekistan is transitioning, as a post-Karimov modern state pushes for development while doing everything it can to preserve its heritage.

—Robert Louis Stevenson

For a Muslim country, it has done much to keep radicalism at bay. The government is well aware it has Afghanistan on its flank and of the links between its own Islamists and those of its neighbor. It doesn’t want the country to slide into extremism and so keeps tight control over religious leaders, banning membership in militant Islamic organizations and throwing followers into jail, often under harsh conditions.

Is it safe to travel to Uzbekistan?

Is Uzbekistan a safe country? Yes.

The country’s very authoritarianism guarantees a constant police and military presence, ensuring violent crime is kept at a minimum. There have been outbursts of religious unrest and ethnic violence but as a foreigner, you’d have to be quite unlucky to run into anything as long as you stick to the tourist trail.

The borders are far less secure and there are occasional hostilities, although things these days appear calm and simple compared to my first visit in 2016. Things do change quickly along the land borders, however, and what is acceptable today may change tomorrow. For the latest on land border crossings into Uzbekistan, I suggest you read this piece in Caravanistan or head to their forum.

In terms of Uzbekistan safety, one of the first things that surprised me was the level of people’s trust in everyday life: purses are left on tables, as are cellphones, and no one seems to worry they might disappear, although there are now reports of increased pickpocket activities.

Is Uzbekistan safe for women engaging in solo tourism? Yes. When it comes to solo female travel, Uzbekistan is definitely a Go.

I traveled as a solo woman in Uzbekistan and – other than scary car rides – I never felt unsafe. Crime in Uzbekistan is rated low to moderate. In my opinion, solo travel Uzbekistan is as safe as – or perhaps safer than – most other places.

Of course, this level of strict control comes at the price of human rights and freedom of expression. Uzbekistan used to rank just behind North Korea on the Global Slavery Index, mostly for its use of forced labor in the country’s cotton fields. This has improved in recent years although the country still has a way to go before winning human rights awards.

A Human Rights Watch delegation visited Uzbekistan in 2017, and the BBC was allowed to reopen its office in Tashkent the same year. It had been expelled in 2005 after reporting on the Andijan massacre

The status of women in this largely patriarchal society leaves something to be desired, although cities are modernizing slowly. Women’s traditionally subservient position gave way to emancipation and egalitarianism during Soviet rule but with Uzbekistan’s independence, Islamic traditions resurfaced and gender equality has been eroded, with polygamy and early marriage to a certain extent acceptable, at least among poorer families.

None of this should affect foreign solo female travelers. Men will rarely be aggressive, and that persistent feeling of danger will be absent.

Some practical Uzbekistan travel advice

Getting to Uzbekistan

To travel to Uzbekistan, most of you would be flying into Tashkent, the country’s capital.

Uzbekistan Airways flies a few international routes, but Turkish Airlines and Aeroflot have the most frequent flights to Uzbekistan.

Other than flying, and in the highly unlikely case you are traveling from Russia, you can also arrive by train from Moscow – if you love trains enough to spend three days on one. There is also a fast train from Almaty, which now takes 16 hours as opposed to the 26 it used to take.

If you’d rather come in by land, as I did, check the border situation first (see my Caravanistan link above or the Resources at the bottom of this page). Just a few years ago, you could expect borders to open and close without warning, and even if open, some would not allow foreigners through. This has now changed and land crossings tend to be smooth.

If you’re crossing with a vehicle, you need to check whether the land border crossing you plan to take allows cars. Some will only allow foreigners on foot or on bicycles.

Spoken English is increasing in Uzbekistan. 

Language in Uzbekistan

You’ll be fine in hotels and restaurants in tourist areas but if you venture off into local neighborhoods – and you should – Russian will serve you better.

If you speak neither Russian nor Uzbek, use Google Translate on your phone. It’ll write things out for you (better in my opinion than the spoken version) and you’ll make friends quickly.

That said, young people want to learn English, and finding some to help you or practice with should not be a problem these days on the tourist trail.

Weather in Uzbekistan

The weather in Uzbekistan is continental, which means summers are hot and winters, once terribly cold, have now warmed along with the rest of the world, making travel in the winter months possible (but not ideal).

The best time to visit Uzbekistan is spring (April-May) or autumn (September-October). I visited in late September and the temperature was warmish-hot in the daytime but lovely and cool in the evening. Any earlier would have made it uncomfortable.

What to wear in Uzbekistan

Wear everyday clothes but err on the conservative side, bearing in mind this is still a Muslim country. I saw very few women with headscarves during my stay and wore travel pants and a T-shirt most of the time.

In the country’s most touristy enclaves, I did see women in shorts and spaghetti straps. I also saw the disapproving looks they received from locals.

One of the delightful things to do in Uzbekistan is watch the sunset over Khiva
Sunset over Khiva, Uzbekistan – it looks as though it hasn’t changed in centuries ©WOTR

How much money to take to Uzbekistan

The currency in Uzbekistan is the som, and you can either buy soms legally at the bank or illegally on the black market from any money-changer, which is somewhat tolerated (but watch out, it can still get you into trouble). A few years ago the black market was thriving but this is no longer the case and most people change their money at banks.

Just remember not to take any soms with you out of the country! And if you do, you’ll probably find a money-changer on the train ready to oblige…

While there are a few ATMs outside the capital, the last thing I need is to have my card swallowed up in a far-off province so I kept my money in cash (in a money belt). The ATM situation is improving quickly – Uzbekistan is nothing if not adaptable. But they do run out of money so best to make sure you get cash in the bigger cities.

Getting an Uzbekistan phone card was once an adventure but is no longer so.

As a foreigner, you were required to prove you’ve been registered in the same city for three days before you could buy a local SIM card. These days you can buy a local SIM card at any Ucell or Beeline outlet, at the airport when you land (this doesn’t get many thumbs up from travelers) or do what I do and buy an e-SIM for your phone, if it’s unlocked.

I talked my way out of this requirement, and other travelers have told me they had no trouble at all, even on arrival, so clearly this too is in a state of flux. That said, I was unable to buy a SIM right after crossing the border and had to wait till Tashkent, so the process isn’t quite smooth yet.

Currency of Uzbekistan
Currency inflation is one of the facts about Uzbekistan: it’s easy to feel like a millionaire here ©WOTR

How to get a visa for Uzbekistan

In February 2018, Uzbekistan visa requirements were lightened and 51 nationalities could apply for a visa online without the dreaded “letter of invitation”, or LOI.  Citizens from the EU and other Western countries (except the USA) no longer need any visa at all.

Always check the visa situation before you book your flight. In Uzbekistan, visa regulations are relatively fluid. If you don’t want the hassle of applying for an e-visa yourself, let an agency handle it for you. Get your Uzbekistan visa here.

Places to visit in Uzbekistan

Travel in Uzbekistan is relatively straightforward, if not easy. You’ll have plenty of choices when it comes to how you get yourself from place to place:

  • Air Uzbekistan: great for longer distances, say Tashkent-Nukus or Tashkent-Khiva (the airport is in the nearby town of Urgench).
  • Uzbekistan Railways: recommended (with the possible exception of the 22-hour trip from Tashkent to Nukus). Trains are comfortable and fast, but make sure you reserve the moment you have your travel dates or all the high-speed trains will be booked. If you end up arriving in Tashkent very late, as I did, all taxis will be gone, the station itself will be shut, and you’ll have to hitchhike – just go outside and stick out your arm and wave it up and down a bit. It’s apparently quite the done thing. If you have Internet access, there’s always Yandex, a bit like Uber.
  • An Uzbekistan road trip: Yes, this is definitely a possibility. You can ask any hotel to organize a vehicle for you from one city to the next. Although I took the train for part of my journey, the rest of it was by road – from Nukus to Khiva to Bukhara. The roads have been upgraded and are fine, but vehicles are often quite rickety – that kind of upgrade will take longer.
  • Collective or individual taxis between towns: your last resort, but often the only available transport. Your hotel or guest house will sort this out for you but beware, driving may well be the greatest danger you face in this country because of the erratic habits of Uzbek drivers. Cars, too, can sometimes be heaps and leave plenty to be desired, with seat belts more decorative than practical.

Whatever transport you use, your destination won’t disappoint you. There are dozens of Uzbekistan tourist attractions, many of which I’ve listed below by city.

TIP: Make sure you always carry your hotel’s name, address and phone number in case you get lost.

My top five cities of Uzbekistan (in order of travel)

No idea what to do in Uzbekistan?

You’ll have to split your holidays in Uzbekistan into a viable itinerary that makes sense for you.

If you’re properly organized, you can easily visit most tourist places in Uzbekistan in ten days or so – I spent only nine days there and while I (almost) managed to see what I wanted, I regretted not having a little more time.

I visited five main cities: Nukus, Khiva, Bukhara, Samarkand and Tashkent.

Also, be aware that although I started my travels in Tashkent, I did not visit the city as a tourist at the start of my trip to Uzbekistan. Instead, I traveled to the far end of Uzbekistan and worked my way back to the capital. You, of course, could easily do it the other way around, ending in Nukus and flying back to Tashkent.

To help you choose places to go in Uzbekistan, here’s my Uzbekistan itinerary, as an indication:

Day 1: Arrive in the country, and if you’re coming in through another border, get yourself to Tashkent
Day 2: Tashkent to Nukus by train, all 22 hours of it (only if you’re a masochist) – please do yourself a favor and fly
Day 3: Visit Nukus (flying will give you time to visit the Aral Sea and see how far it’s receded) and travel to Khiva
Day 4: Khiva 
Day 5: Drive to Bukhara
Day 6: Bukhara
Day 7: Train from Bukhara to Samarkand
Day 8: Late train from Samarkand to Tashkent
Day 9: Tashkent, then fly home

So you see, it’s tight. I could have used an extra day in Tashkent, along with more time in Nukus. But that’s me. You might choose an Uzbekistan trip that is far longer and love it!

Here’s a map of Uzbekistan to give you an idea of where things are.

And now, drum roll, the best Uzbekistan places to visit are… (in order of my itinerary):

1. Nukus

Nukus is a strange little windswept town, “the end of the line” in Uzbekistan. The train ride from Tashkent cuts across miles of undulating desert. Instead of the warm golden dunes of the Sahara, you get the flat, arid scrublands not even goats are willing to feast upon. One of my most exciting sightings in 22 hours was the silhouette of three cows against the horizon.

This train ride is for the hardy (or foolish) or for lovers of old Soviet trains.

The engine crawls at the speed of a sloth, with plenty of stops where there seemed no reason to have one. The chugging was so irregular I was nearly catapulted out of my high, red leather bunk each time the brakes screeched – when they could be heard above the snores of the men sharing my compartment.

Three things would bring you here:

  • the Savitsky Collection of paintings
  • the (receding) Aral Sea
  • the ability to boast that you’ve visited the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan.

Nukus hosts one of the world’s greatest collections of avant-garde Russian art from the 1920s and 30s.

The museum is the brainchild of Russian artist Igor Savitsky, who abandoned the sophistication of Moscow to settle in Nukus and collect traditional Karakalpak art for his new museum. In the 1950s and 60s, he added works by Russian artists who were banned in the Soviet Union and had migrated to Central Asia, making the collection as unusual as it is excellent.

I was sadly disappointed to find that some of the most pertinent works of art had been “moved” in anticipation of the opening of the new building a week later. Never mind. What I saw, I loved.

The newer part of Nukus has an almost alien feel to it, with wide open spaces and barely completed buildings – and hardly a soul to be seen.

I did eat my best Uzbek meal in Nukus at the Palvan Shahk near my hotel: fried chicken sautéed with coriander, the first and last time I sampled that herb here. I was the only customer and to entertain me the three waiters loaded a DVD showing a Russian stripper gyrating to pounding music. As always, the differences in culture can be somewhat surprising.

A few hours out of Nukus lies Moynaq, once a wealthy harbor and now more of a ghost town. I wasn’t able to visit but do so if you can – the vision of ship skeletons littering the desert must be something terrifying, an environmental catastrophe of the most tangible kind.

Aral Sea -  Uzbekistan
Moynaq, on the shores of what was once the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan by Arian Zwegers [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Both Nukus and Moynaq are located in what is called Karakalpakstan, an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan which is now poor and hungry for water; the Aral Sea’s waters were so intensively diverted by the Soviets for irrigation that the sea is now only one-tenth of its former size. But for those who care about such things, visiting a republic within a country is a reward in itself.

Journalist AA Gill once penned a piece for the Sunday Times in which he called the region “the worst place in the world”. I think he needs to travel more, and we need to be influenced by what we see for ourselves.

I left Nukus slightly perplexed but glad I had come.

2. Khiva

From Nukus to Khiva, Uzbekistan, you’ll have to go by road. These have been seriously upgraded since my visit so the trip should be straightforward.

Until, finally, Khiva.

Khiva is divided into an outer and inner old city. The area within the inner walls, the Itchan, or Inchon Qala, (also spelled Itchan Kala) is a protected UNESCO World Heritage Site, a living, breathing (car-free) museum. By day it converts into rows of soft-sell souvenir stalls.

Beyond the Inchon Qala lies the Dichan Qala, or outer town – which I did not visit, so taken was I with the inner town’s winding streets. I’m told there are plenty of sights nearby but you know how it is – once you’ve been captivated by a place, you can’t wrench yourself away.

Of all the things to do during Uzbekistan vacations, taking an evening stroll through the streets of Khiva should be near the top of your list.

Not everyone likes this small town: its millennial walls and buildings have been refreshed, with signs to identify them and deterioration patched up. To purists, this “outdoor museum” should have been left alone, or at least renovated with a little less gusto.

I beg to differ.

By bringing the city to life, we can insert ourselves into history, feeling its heartbeat almost like a medieval trader would have experienced it. In the daytime, that picture is slightly marred by the souvenir sellers lining the main streets and eking a difficult living but at night, the magic of Khiva appears.

Everyone has a soft spot; my favorite city in Uzbekistan is Khiva, without a doubt, and a big part is its history, which you can discover either through a guidebook or by joining a walking tour of Khiva.

Old town of Khiva
Khiva’s old town – I can imagine it looked exactly like this hundreds of years ago, but with a thriving population ©WOTR
Juma mosque Khiva in Uzbekistan
The Juma, or Friday Mosque has survived a number of incarnations. This is the 18th-century version, although some pillars date back 1000 years. Each of the 215 pillars is original, having been donated by a different family. Under the Soviet regime the mosque – like many old buildings in Uzbekistan – fell into disrepair and was used for storage. It has now been renovated and has regained some of its former splendor ©WOTR


When the lights go off at night and the streets are swept clear of day-trippers, what’s left are 2500 years of walls and dust.

Inching along paving stones I might once have shared with camel caravans on the Silk Road, I round a corner lit only by stars, nearly expecting a brigand to swipe me with his saber and abscond with my gold-filled purse.

In daylight, Khiva is anything but dark. It has all the energy of a timeless crossroads, one that has worn many disguises: trader, slaver, warrior and scholar, in turn tolerant and conservative.

The original city of Khiva was razed, rebuilt and sacked by Genghis Khan. It survived to become a major cultural and eventually Islamic center.

No longer a holy city, Khiva retains some of its religious heritage. The Juma Mosque, the city’s largest, has 213 elm pillars, some recent, some dating back nearly a thousand years. The newest are more than 200 years old, carved when the present mosque was built over the foundations of a far older one.

In counterpoint to its religious heritage, Khiva has remnants of a more salacious recent history. Rumour has it that a certain shop or two served as gateways to greater pleasures. That trade was shut down quickly a few years ago, having given Khiva a reputation it was anxious to shed.

To me, the essence of Khiva emerges once the hot sun has disappeared. When that happens, the stars sparkle in a sapphire sky, bathing in the absence of jarring streetlights. In the air, music floats.

A few holy men have just returned from the Hajj pilgrimage and a feast is in the offing, somewhere behind the thick town ramparts. Soon, the sounds of strings will be joined by the smell of roasted lamb on a spit, charring the air.

In an unlit alley, I walk across paving laid down more than 1000 years ago. The air has settled and I feel a slight chill, as though someone could round that corner at any moment, dagger in hand. I quicken my step and grasp my imaginary gold pieces tightly – imaginary because the greatest danger you’re likely to face in Khiva is a twisted heel on an uneven cobblestone.

3. Bukhara

From Khiva to Bukhara, the road has also been paved. The driving, on the other hand, remains chaotic although there is a significant police presence, along with several security checkpoints.

The city is often spelled Buxoro, by the way, a holdover from the Cyrillic alphabet replaced by Latin letters in 1992. 

The main streets of the ancient center are, as you’d expect, lined with souvenir stands and cafés but not excessively so. Wander off into an alley and you’ll be engulfed by heat reflecting off brick buildings and turquoise-glazed cupolas, the most famous of which is the Kalyon Mosque and Minaret.

Especially in its 9th-century heyday, Bukhara was one of the busiest transit points along the Silk Road in Uzbekistan and there are plenty of caravanserai (hostelries) to explore.

Beneath the arcades that lead into the old town, artists still practice their ancient trades – Bukhara is famous for its carpets, of course, but also for fashioning musical instruments, weaving, metalwork… as though nothing had been lost over centuries. 

If you love oriental carpets, I have a single warning for you: do not take money or credit cards into Bukhara. If you do, you run the risk of ending up in a carpet shop haggling for a roll of precious silk woven into millions of knots by young women who – when I spoke to them – seemed happy with their jobs. I’m always wary of young women in industrial settings because exploitation is so common. I ask to see the workshop or factory and try to gauge conditions before I buy, with the full realization that my lightning inspection isn’t going to yield much information. Still, you can tell a lot from a place’s atmosphere and the joking and playfulness that goes on – and I was assured every worker was over 18.

In the old town’s carpet shops, you can buy a carpet for US$100 (small with a thick weave) or spend US$10,000 for a true work of silk art. Within the $1000-$2000 range you can take home a carpet that is already a thing of beauty and that will grow in value.

I can’t comment on prices and quality because while my own carpet was on the slightly (for me) expensive side, I have no idea whether it was a bargain or a rip-off. There was a combination of hard-sell and negotiating involved but – I won’t know until an expert sees it… All I can say is that it was love at first sight.

This full-day tour of Bukhara will provide plenty of insight into the city’s architecture and history. If you’re in Tashkent but don’t have much time time, you can still visit Bukhara on a one-day tour from Tashkent.

Uzbekistan Kalyon Mosque
The intricate ceiling of the Kalyon Mosque in Bukhara ©WOTR
Bukhara metal worker
From father to son, artistry in Bukhara is passed down ©WOTR
Bukhara carpets -  Uzbekistan
The brilliance of Bukhara’s carpets – see what I mean about leaving your money at home? ©WOTR

4. Samarkand

As you move down the country, cities become larger. After tiny Khiva and the compactness of Bukhara, Samarkand comes almost as a shock. It’s a proper city, with traffic and highrises and it’s not hard to imagine it was once the capital of this region.

Seeing the Registan is an even greater shock.

The architectural complex of three madrassas towers high above everyone and has been so extensively restored the colors nearly jump off their mosaics. The Registan was severely damaged over the years and the Soviet Union made the decision to restore it to its former splendor.

The result is, in my opinion, breathtaking but not everyone agrees. There has been much controversy around the restorations, which some see as excessive. Not being a scholar, I cannot compare with the original…

There is a bright-colored light and sound show in the evenings but I wasn’t able to see it. The Registan is already so spectacular I can’t begin to imagine what the addition of lights and sound might do to it.

Equally magnificent (even more than the Registan, some say) are the 14th-century Gur Emir, Timur’s mausoleum, and the Bibi-Khanym Mosque, built for Timur’s favorite wife.

If you have any interest in architecture, you won’t be able to tear yourself away, so consider spending a bit more than just a day here, especially since Samarkand is not as compact as the preceding cities and there will be a fair amount of walking to do.

If I were to return, I’d drift along the ceramic walls slowly, examining each intricate lace-like border. There is plenty more to see and I felt slightly cheated with only 24 hours in Samarkand.

For something altogether different and a bit of insight into Samarkand life, why not try a cooking class and meal with a local family? To better see Samarkand, consider joining a day tour of the city. Also, you can easily visit Samarkand from Tashkent for a one-day tour.

Registan Uzbekistan, one of the top things to see in Uzbekistan
One of the Registan’s extraordinary buildings – efesenko84 / 123RF Stock Photo
 Uzbekistan registan interior
One of the many elaborate interiors of the Registan ©WOTR
Tilla Kari Madrasa in Uzbekistan
The interior of the Ulug Beg Madrassah, part of the Registan complex in Samarkand ©WOTR
Bibi-Khanym Mosque in Uzbekistan
Bibi was the wife of Timur (Tamerlane) and had the mosque built for him while he was away waging war. The architect asked the beautiful Bibi to pay him with a kiss and she obliged – but the kiss left an indelible mark. When Timur came home and spotted the telltale sign, he had the architect executed (though not quite sure what happened to Bibi)… ©WOTR

5. Tashkent

Of all the cities I visited in Uzbekistan, Tashkent is the one in which I spent the least time – and where I found the least inspiration.

But much of that isn’t Tashkent’s fault: this modern, sprawling Soviet-style city was rebuilt almost from scratch after the 1966 earthquake in Uzbekistan that leveled nearly 30,000 buildings and killed dozens, possibly hundreds of people (the numbers remain in dispute). As a result, it is huge and far less walkable than the northern cities and their ancient town centers.

Today, Uzbekistan still faces some risk of earthquakes but the risk is officially classified as “low”.

Yet there are fascinating places to see when you visit Tashkent – in true Soviet style, you’ll find museums dedicated to cosmonauts and to Olympic glory while in parallel, you’ll find a memorial to victims of Soviet repression – all interspersed with those mosques, madrassas, and minarets still left standing.

Getting around is relatively easy with the Tashkent metro or by hiring travel guides, and your list of things to do in Uzbekistan should include:

  • the modern but fun Chorsu Bazaar
  • Teleshayakh Mosque
  • Minor Mosque
  • Uzbekistan State Museum of Applied Art
  • Amir Timur Museum

Alternatively, you can take one of several Tashkent city tours if you’re using Tashkent as a jumping off base and you don’t have much time.

To appreciate Tashkent, perhaps you should see it first before you head off to the dazzling and dreamlike qualities of the Silk Road triumvirate – Samarkand, Bukhara, and Khiva.


If you’re not 100% comfortable organizing all this travel on your own or if you’re really pressed for time, there are some excellent group tours of Uzbekistan you might consider:

Earthquake monument in Tashkent
Earthquake monument in Tashkent ©WOTR

Uzbekistan culture: Getting under the country’s skin

The language of Uzbekistan is Uzbek, a Turkic language spoken in various permutations throughout the region. I didn’t speak a word, but I did use that trusty fallback, Google Translate, to get by.

As for Uzbekistan foods, you probably won’t be traveling here just to eat, because you’ll find much the same fare (relatively bland and greasy) throughout Central Asia.

Nor will you go hungry (unless you’re vegetarian) and food will be hearty and plentiful.

Here are the most common foods in Uzbekistan:

  • plov is a kind of fried rice with meat and vegetables, usually carrots and onions. It is fatty but will fill you up
  • lagman is noodle soup with meat, often mutton
  • shashlik is your basic kebab, delicious if you’re a grilled meat fan
  • somsa are a bit like dumplings and are often cooked in an oven over a live fire – they can be delicious, or they can be greasy and virtually inedible – I’ve had both
  • you’ll find plenty of fresh fruit in season, cheeses, and bread, especially in markets
Various breads of Uzbekistan
Various breads of Uzbekistan ©WOTR
Deliciou  plov Uzbekistan
The best dish of plov I tasted in Uzbekistan – and I tasted many! ©WOTR

Hotels in Uzbekistan

Finding a hotel in Uzbekistan is quite simple. I have a few recommendations below, and I’ve added a hotel reservation map to help you compare prices.

I stayed in a rather eclectic string of hotels across the country, ranging from modern luxury to lower-end venues.

  • Tashkent: I stayed at the Wyndham, a perfectly fine international hotel and a great place to start and end my journey (great wifi and hot water) – several of the major phone companies are across the street in case you want to buy a SIM card.
  • Samarkand: Right next to the Gur-Emir is the Antica B&B, down a side street and nearly hidden from sight (but not hard to find). What sold me on this place was the leafy patio. Uzbekistan can get searingly hot and having a plant-filled oasis with plenty of shade (and acceptable wifi) can be heaven. The downside is that there are no nearby eateries; the guest house will cook you dinner but once is enough – so what do you do the other nights? Still, for 1-2 nights, a fabulous place.
  • Bukhara: The Kavsar Boutique Hotel is a welcoming little haven, about five minutes from the old town and a super helpful owner who drove me to the train station half an hour away at the crack of dawn – for free. The only caveat: get an upper room floor because the patio downstairs is a gathering place and if you’re an early-to-bed type (as I am), you won’t be getting to sleep much before 11 pm.
  • Khiva: The Orzu Guesthouse is as good as you can get location-wise, right within the city walls but near a gate so a cab can actually get to your door if you have a lot of luggage. Breakfast is huge!
  • Nukus: I had no planned place to stay and stumbled upon the Massaget Hotel, a few blocks from the Savitsky Collection. The couple at the front desk spoke English, the place was clean, and… that was pretty much all I needed.

Map of Uzbekistan hotels

What will your Uzbekistan vacation look like?

Tourism in Uzbekistan is growing. As the government tries to promote the country and make it easier to visit, those of us who come do feel as though we have been allowed to enter a special place, not yet crowded, different and unusual, a place where travel feels… like travel, as opposed to yet another globalized destination with the same foods, hotels, and shops (although this, too, is changing fast).

I traveled throughout the country on my own, independently. But that’s not for everyone and if my itinerary sounds a bit rushed or complicated, consider taking an Uzbekistan tour.

There are dozens of reliable operators offering Uzbekistan vacation packages, some of whom have been in business in the region for years. Visit the country itself, or incorporate it into a tour that covers several Central Asian countries. I was delighted to have visited Kyrgyzstan first, as that helped me realize how vastly different Central Asian countries could be from one another.

Whatever you decide, it will be an extraordinary adventure.

A few final thoughts…

Much of Uzbekistan, one of the five so-called “Stans”, is not naturally stunning. 

If you want non-stop breathtaking scenery, travel next door to Kyrgyzstan.

Visiting Uzbekistan, you’ll likely be blessed with scrub grass, boring plains of sand, and haphazard peri-urban construction although to be fair, Uzbekistan does have some stunning corners – the Tien Shan mountains for example – but the beauty is neither constant nor omnipresent. 

You come to Uzbekistan for the history, the culture, the architecture, for the sense of civilization reflected in symmetry and a love of detail so beautiful UNESCO designated three entire city centers – Khiva, Bukhara, and Samarkand – as World Heritage sites.


I mentioned at the start that I almost didn’t make it into Uzbekistan. I also nearly didn’t make it OUT, either.

As I checked in for departure and made my way through airport security, two armed military men grabbed my arms and walked me away. They checked my passport, threw it on an abandoned shelf where anyone could have picked it up (by far the scariest thing that happened), and whisked me away. We walked down a set of stairs, crossed an outdoor lot, and re-entered the building into what must have been the baggage sorting belly of Tashkent Airport. My backpack was waiting for me and they sternly gestured for me to empty it. 

My heart sank. In a traditional plot line, this is where the protagonist finds a stash of some illicit substance or contraband she had never seen, undoubtedly placed there by some nasty dealer seeking an unsuspecting traveler headed for Europe. Scenes from the movie Midnight Express flashed through my mind.

But no, no contraband. They overlooked my personal locator beacon, even though it could be mistaken for a suspicious electronic device. They also ignored my pills and potions, although Uzbekistan at the time was one of the strictest countries in the world for medicines.

So what were they looking for?

Finally, their faces broke out into victorious grins. Aha!

And they pulled out my… ultra-violet water purifier.

I was puzzled until I noticed its elongated, rather phallic shape and a tapering end. In this conservative country where disseminating pornography is illegal, I can only think the shape of this lil’ ol’ purifier made them think it might have been… something else.

In the end, we all had an uneasy laugh, but not until I actually demonstrated its use by turning it on and plunging it into a glass of water! 

To me, Uzbekistan’s place names conjure up a flying carpet ready to wing me toward the most exquisite remnants of the past. They bring up visions of turquoise domes and rainbow-hued mosaics, of camel caravans heaving with spices and gunpowder – and lines of slaves slowly dragging themselves in the heat. They evoke ancient walled enclaves where traders once unfurled their carpets and laid out their goods, repacking at dawn to head east or west, depending on whether they were coming or going along the Silk Road.

I can almost smell the cardamom wafting by and hear the hooves of galloping horses as Genghis Khan and Tamerlane scorched and conquered their way across the then-known world.

Land of my ancestors, Central Asia has always beckoned, yet for much of my life, it was hidden behind the iron parapet of the USSR. I’m thrilled to have visited, but keenly aware that while the Soviet Union may be gone, Uzbekistan has yet to embark fully on the road to freedom and rights. 

Tourism desert in Uzbekistan
A large portion of Uzbekistan looks like this view from my train ride to Nukus… ©WOTR
Uzbekistan tourism - Tien shan Mountains
…but it can also be stunning like this vision of the Tien Shan Mountains – anton_petrus / 123RF Stock Photo

And please – don’t forget your travel insurance before you go! I recommend SafetyWing if you’re 69 and under. If that birthday has come and gone, click here for travel insurance that covers you at any age.

A few Uzbekistan travel resources to help you plan

  • Find up-to-date visa information (and any travel information on Central Asia) on Caravanistan, a website that specializes in Central Asia. Their active forum kept me informed of border crossing openings right after Karimov’s death, when things were in a state of flux. Click here to order your evisa for Uzbekistan.
  • I would use two guidebooks: the Bradt Travel Guide to Uzbekistan for practical information and food and lodging, and the Odyssey Guide to Uzbekistan for history, culture, and in-depth knowledge of this amazing country. A good Uzbekistan travel guide is indispensable.
  • To prepare for your trip, why not read A Carpet Ride to Khiva (a great introduction to the country) and Restless Valley (only partly about Uzbekistan).
  • For more pre-travel reading, check out this social country profile by the UN Development Programme. For facts and figures, see the CIA World Factbook
  • And Eurasianet carries recent news from Uzbekistan and from the entire Central Asian region.

―Updated 2 March 2020 with the help of Claire Martin of Claire’s Footsteps. Originally published on 19 May 2017

Travel in Uzbekistan pin
Travel in Uzbekistan pin
Travel in Uzbekistan pin

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